Year 2011

Banna JC, Keim NL, Townsend MS. Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California. J Extension. 2011;vol 49 (5):5FEA6. 

To create a culturally appropriate assessment, the study reported here developed and evaluated the face validity of a visually enhanced Spanish-language physical activity questionnaire. A professional translated the English version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an expert panel subsequently reviewed it. Photos of individuals engaged in physical activity behaviors were added. Cognitive interviews were completed with low-income Spanish-speaking women in California (n=20). Questionnaire text was modified and then reviewed by translation experts (n=7). With a high readability score of 98, the questionnaire demonstrates adequate face validity and is ready for further validation.

Banna JC, Townsend MS. Assessing factorial and convergent validity and reliability of a food behaviour checklist for Spanish-speaking participants in U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrition education programmes.  Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(7):1165-1176.


The purpose of this study was to assess convergent validity, factorial validity, test–retest reliability and internal consistency of a diet quality food behaviour checklist (FBC) for low-literate, low-income Spanish speakers. Participants (n 90) completed three dietary recalls, the Spanish-language version of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) and the Spanish-language FBC. Factor structure was examined using principal component analysis. Spearman correlation coefficients between FBC item responses and nutrient intakes from 24 h recalls were used to estimate convergent validity.